For Clinicians

Patient Risk Factors

Patient procedures, medications, and characteristics significantly increase the risk of CIED-related infection (multivariate analysis).1-7


CIED infections are difficult and time-consuming to manage.8,9

Intervention typically results in the need to explant the CIED, deliver IV antibiotics, and reimplant a new device.8,9

Recommendations issued in January 2010 are the first evidence-based guidelines for CIED infection prophylaxis issued by the American Heart Association (AHA) and the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS).8

The antibiotic combination of minocycline and rifampin has significant in vitro activity against staphylococci.10-13


Patient medications and patient characteristics significantly increase the risk of death once an infection is present.14,15



  1. Klug D et al. Circulation. 2007;116(12):1349-1355.
  2. Lekkerkerker JC et al. Heart. 2009;95(9):715-720.
  3. Margey R et al. Europace. 2010;12(1):64-70.
  4. Sohail MR et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45(2):166-173.
  5. Bloom H et al. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2006;29(2):142-145.
  6. Herce et al. Europace. 2013;15(1):66-70.
  7. Romeyer-Bouchard et al. Eur Heart J. 2010;31(2):203-210.
  8. Baddour LM et al. Circulation. 2010;121(3):458-477.
  9. Wilkoff B et al. Heart Rhythm. 2007;4(11):1467-1470.
  10. Gilbert DN et al. The Sanford Guide to Antimicrobial Therapy. 39th ed. 2012: Antimicrobial Therapy Inc.; Hyde Park, VT.
  11. Zinner SH et al. J Infect Dis. 1981;144(4):365-371.
  12. Darouiche RO et al. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 1995;6(1):31-36.
  13. Segreti J et al. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1989;12(3):253-255.
  14. Habib A et al. Am J Cardiol. 2013;111(6):874-879.
  15. Baman et al. Circ EP. 2009;2:129-134.